This is my documentary debunking Jordan Maxwell's 1991 film which has become popular on the internet and would later lay much of the ground work for the viral Zeitgeist movement. (My friend Keith Thompson has refuted the Zeitgeist movement here.) The "debunkumentary" refutes some of the earlier aspects of Zeitgeist, Kersey Graves, Blavatsky’s Gnostic esotericism which has become popular through Dowling's Aquarian Gospel book, and some of the non-sense from the Acharya S. camp (see the footnotes for further material on her).
Note: The player above will play each part consecutively. Chris White of NowheretoRunRadio.com has kindly uploaded each part as one here for those who want to view it as a single version. It runs 1 hour and 19 minutes.
Part 11) Here's a side-by-side Hebrew-English translation of Gen. 6:14 in all the major Hebrew texts. The Hebrew word used for ark in "Ark of the Covenant" isn't ark either; it's "aron":
2) Just reading the Hebrew Old Testament is enough to see that Solomon isn't pronounced "Solomon" in the Hebrew. Here's the info on the Greek/Latin reconstruction and name meaning:
3) David Noel Freedman, Eerdman's Dictionary of the Bible, (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2000), 382.
Transliterated as "r'w"
4) Etymology of Jonah:
5) Here's an example of "Shemesh" used in Hebrew scripture:
6) Etymology online dictionary on Dalai:
7) Ibid. for Lama
Part 21) Benjamin B. Warfield, Introduction to Textual Criticism of the New Testament (1907), 12-13
"If we compare the present state of the New Testament text with that of any other ancient writing, we must declare it to be marvelously correct...The New Testament [is] unrivaled among ancient writings in the purity of its text as actually transmitted and kept in use."
2) Lee Strobel, The Case for the Real Jesus (Zondervan, 2007), 82-83 quoting Dan Wallace. Wallace also states (on p 83):
"Yet remarkably, the additions to the text over fourteen centuries of copying amount to about 2 percent of the total. In other words the New Testament grew over time, but at less than 2 percent growth per millennium-so banking on its expansion would be a poor investment...The quality and quantity of the New Testament manuscripts are unequalled in the ancient Greco-Roman world."
3) Apologetics Study Bible, "Manuscript Authority of the New Testament Compared to other Classical Works" (Holman, 2006), in back chart section (no pagination).
4) Ibid. Strobel, The Case for Real Jesus, 83. Dan Wallace states:
"The average Greek author has less than twenty copies of his works still in existence, and they come no sooner than five hundred to a thousand years later. If you stacked up copies of his works...they would be about four feet tall. Stack up copies of the New Testament and they would reach more than a mile high-and, again that doesn't include quotations from the church fathers."
5) Stated by Dan Wallace in 4truth.net interview: "Audio interview with Daniel B. Wallace on Reliability of New Testament Text":
6) Ibid. 4truth.
7) Ibid. Apologetics Study Bible.
8) Stated by Gary Hambermas in lecture "The Veracity of the New Testament" mp3 audio here:
9) Ibid. 4truth interview. (Stated at 36:48-4)
10) Ibid. Strobel, The Case for the Real Jesus, 89.
11) Article: Egypt: The God Amun and Amun-Re: http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/amun-re.htm
"In reality, the god did in fact threaten the monarchy, for the cult of Amun-Re became so powerful that its priesthood grew very large and influential, and at one point, priests of the deity actually came to rule Egypt (during the 21st Dynasty) At other times, Amun-Re created difficulties for the king, such as in the case of Akenaten, who sought to change the basic structure of Egyptian religion. In this instance, Amun-Re eventually proved more powerful then the king, for though Akhenaten desperately tried to change the nature of Egyptian religion, for such efforts he himself became the scorn of later pharaohs. After Akhenaten's reign, Egyptian religion almost immediately reverted back to its prior form and to the worship of Amun-Re." (emph. mine)
13) Tecktonics article:
14) Donald B. Redford "The Monotheism of Akhenaten." in Aspects of Monotheism, 113
15) Donald B. Redford, Akhenaten the Heretic King, (Princeton University Press 1984), 232
16) In a personal email correspondence, astronomer Jay Pasachoff writes, "Many of the constellations were referred to in Homer in the 9th century BC. The Babylonians divided the zodiac into 12 constellations in the 5th c. BC."
18) James Holden, A History of Horoscopic Astrology: From the Babylonian Period to the Modern Age (American Federation of Astrologers, 2nd edition, 1996), 8.
19) Nicholas Campion, "Babylonian Astrology: Its Origin and Legacy in Europe," (2000) 2.
20) Nicholas Campion, Introduction to the History of Astrology, chapter on "Egyptian Astrology," p. 1
21) This is explicitly stated in no uncertain terms in Exodus 16:2-5; 8; 12; 15.
22) One Omer:
Exodus 16:16; 22
This is what the LORD has commanded: 'Each one is to gather as much as he needs. Take an omer for each person you have in your tent.' " On the sixth day, they gathered twice as much—two omers for each person.
23) Gary R. Habermas, The Historical Jesus, (College Press, 2009), 46.
Part 31) Walter Burkert, Ancient Mystery Cults Cambridge Mass, (Harvard University Press. 1987),101
2) Lee Strobel, The Case for Christ, 166
3) T. N. D. Mettinger, The Riddle of the Resurrection: "Dying and Rising Gods" in the Ancient Near East, 2001. p.4
"From the 1930s...a consensus has developed to the effect that the dying and rising gods' died but did not return or rise to live again... Those who still think differently are looked upon as residual members of an almost extinct species."
Ronand Nash, Gospel and the Greeks, 161-62; quoting Andre Boulanger, Orphee: Raports de l'orphisme et du christianisme (Paris, 1925), 102.
"Which mystery gods actually experienced a resurrection from the dead? Certainly no early texts refer to any resurrection of Attis. Attempts to link the worship of Adonis to a resurrection are equally weak. Nor is the case for a resurrection of Osiris any stronger....And of course no claim can be made that Mithras was a dying and rising god. French scholar Andre Boulanger concluded: 'the conception that the god dies and is resurrected in order to lead his faithful to eternal life is represented in no Hellenistic mystery religion.'"
Boyd/Eddy, The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition (Baker Academic, 2007),134,136.
"While the claim that aspects of the Christian view of Jesus parallel, even are indebted to, ancient pagan legends and myths has a long history, it gained prominence with the birth of the history of religions school (Religionsgeschichtliche Schule) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries....The history of religions school was extremely popular in academic circles for several decades, but owing to trenchant critiques by such scholars as Samuel Cheetham, H.A.A. Kennedy, J. Gresham Machen, A.D. Nock, Bruce Metzger, and Gunter Wagner, it eventually fell out of fashion."
4) Ibid. Strobel, 161 Summery of Mettinger's study and quotation from his work is given.
5) Both offer $1000 with the former having a more eclectic list of claims that the prize money is being offered for:
6) Egyptians washed dead bodies and Anubis was the god of embalming. Massey seems to be equating this with a Christian baptism which ironically symbolizes regeneration and new life. Regardless of the slew of Zeitgeist movie supporters and prize money being directly offered to Acharya S., no one has yet to see a primary text for this one.
7) Annu means pillar:
As for "Annu" being a city with grain stores, this is rather nugatory being that it was a major city and we should expect as such. The Hebrew usage of the word translated "bread" in "Bethlehem" refers to food in general and there were several places called Bethlehem during the minor prophet period.
8) Ibid. footnote 5
9) Quoted from and cited here:
10) As noted before the twelve signs were divided by the Babylonians in the 6/5th century B.C.
11) Stated in this article:
12) Stated here:
13) Ibid. footnote (11).
14) The owner of Kingdavid8, who is offering money for this claim has his conversation with her posted online here: http://www.kingdavid8.com/Letters/LetterJesusHorus.html
15) Nicholas Perrin, "On Raising Osiris in 1 Corinthians 15", 126
16) Perrin article:
17) Nicholas Perrin "On Raising Osiris in 1 Corinthians 15"
18) Ibid. quoted by Strobel, 181
19) Stated here:
20) Thomas Boslooper, The Virgin Birth (1962),135, quoted in Gromacki, Virgin Birth, 211.
21) Stated here:
22) Stated in this article by Yamauchi:
Another source on his Cremation:
23) Text which can be read here:
24) This Buddhist website for example, puts it in no uncertain terms:
25) Quoted by Lee Strobel, The Case for the Real Jesus,182
26) Quoted by Keith Thompson who privately contacted her via Email. Keith later quoted her in his film here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aPsUFiMXEoc&feature=related
27) Quoted in Mike Licona's article: "A Refutation of Acharya S's book, The Christ Conspiracy", which can be viewed online here: http://www.risenjesus.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=14&Itemid=19
28) See Doug Powell article "Did Jesus Descend into Hell?" Can be read in PDF here:
29) Krishna: a sourcebook By Edwin Francis Bryant,148, 150. Quoting Sarala's Mahabharata.
30) Prize money here: http://kingdavid8.com/Copycat/Challenge.html
Start of Refutation of Kersey Graves:1) Carrier article on Graves:
4) The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature Volume 36, p 262
"The name S(S)iduri cannot be separated from Sirtur (Ze-ir-tu-ur, Sir-du), mother of Tammuz; the first r has been dropped by dissimilation. Unfortunately we know nothing directly about this divinity except her name."
6) This gentleman has the most extensive (and one of the only websites on the web that is devoted to this god. As such he has received emails asking about Esus being a prototype for Jesus and scoffs at such notions (he has a page refuting such pretentions):
7) These come from the Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pituras [post-conquest codex written in the 1530s] and Anal de Cuauahtitlan and leyenda de las soles. Etymology of xochiquetzal:
8) Encyclopedia entry on Indra:
10) Barry B. Powell, Classical Myth, 247-248.
The birth from Zeus' semen is a less common version in most it is from Adgistis' semen and blood.
12) Tammuz is the Hebrew and Aramaic pronunciation that is popularized by it's use in the Old Testament where God is abhorred with his worship. Dummuzi is the (more) original Sumerian pronunciation of the god.
13) You can read an online translation of the courtship of Ianna and Dummuzi here: http://www.piney.com/BabCourship.html
14) Our earliest text on Esus is the post-Christian Lucan (Pharsalia I, 422-465). He talks about human sacrifices offered to the god in his Bellum civile15) Hesiod, Theogony 507ff
17) Barry B. Powell, Classical Myth, 247-248
18) Edwin M. Yamauchi, "Easter-Myth, Hallucination, or History? First of Two parts", 5
19) "Those who seek to adduce Mithra as a prototype of the risen Christ ignore the late date for the expansion of Mithraism to the west."
Yamauchi quoted by Lee Strobel, The Case for the Real Jesus,168-169
"We have almost no evidence of Mithraism in the sense of a mystery religion in the West until very late-too late to have influenced the beginnings of Christianity...The earliest Mithraea are dated to the early second century. There are a handful of inscriptions that date to the early second century, but the vast majority of texts date are dated after A.D. 140. Most of what we have as evidence of Mithraism comes in the second, third and fourth centuries A.D...That's... what's wrong with...theories about Mithraism influencing the beginnings of Christianity"
20) Ibid. Strobel, 169.
21) Encyclopedia of Religion, Second Edition, vol 9, Lindsay Jones Editor and Chief (2005 Thompson Gale), 6091.
22) Manfred Clauss, The Roman Cult of Mithras, 62-63.
23) Personal email correspondence that took place on 10/14/10.
24) Personal email correspondence that took place on 10/13/2010.
25) Article by Carrier: http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_carrier/graves.html
26) Barry B. Powell, Classical Myth, 238-41
27) Ovid, Metamorphoses, 10.708-39
28) Edwin M. Yamauchi, "Easter-Myth, Hallucination, or History". Christianity Today (March 15, 1974).,4
See also: http://jss.oxfordjournals.org/content/XI/1/10.extract
"In the case of the Mesopotamian Tammuz (Sumerian Dumuzi), his alleged resurrection by the goddess Inanna-Ishtar had been assumed even though the end of both the Sumerian and the Akkadian texts of the myth of "the Descent of Inanna (Ishtar)" had not been preserved. Professor S. N. Kramer in 1960 published a new poem, "The Death of Dumuzi," that proves conclusively that instead of rescuing Dumuzi from the Underworld, Inanna sent him there as her substitute." "This gives us the irrefutable evidence for the death of Tammuz and the necessity for him to remain dead"
"Tammuz was identified by later writers with the Phoenician Adonis, the beautiful youth beloved of Aphrodite...P. Lambrechts has shown that there is no trace of a resurrection in the early texts or pictorial representations of Adonis."
29) Quoted by Michael Licona in his article refuting Acharya S: http://www.risenjesus.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=14:a-refutation-of-acharya-ss-book-the-christ-conspiracy-&catid=4:articles&Itemid=19
30) Kersey Graves, The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors, 122
31) Ibid Powell, 625. See also Plutarch, Life of Numa Pompilius.
32) Ibid. Encyclopedia of Religion, 7420
33) Play here: http://classics.uc.edu/~johnson/tragedy/summaries/alcestis.html
34) Reward at Kingdavid8.com under "Christ Myther Challenge" and Zeitgeistchallenge.com (totals as of now to 2000$).
35) Ibid., Powell, 247.
36) Ibid., Yamauchi "Easter",5.
37) Ibid., The Case for the Real Jesus, 169.
38) Richard Gordan, Greco-Roman World, (1996), 96.
1) The historian Dr. Chris Forbs has a great and enjoyable audio that covers this and other related issues with Zeitgeist here: http://apologetics315.blogspot.com/2009/04/brief-historical-critique-of-zeitgeist.html
2) Gary R. Habermas and Michael Licona, The Case for the Resurrection of Jesus (Grand Rapids MI : Kregel Publications, 2004) 128.